Dental health care FAQ
1. What is meant by Dental care?
Dental care is the maintenance of healthy teeth. It includes:
1.Oral hygiene, the practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean in order to prevent cavities (dental caries), gum disease, and other dental disorders.
2.Dentistry, the professional care of teeth, including professional oral hygiene and dental surgery.

2. What is meant by Dental caries?
Dental caries, also known as tooth decay, is a disease where bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure (enamel, dentin, and cementum). These tissues progressively break down, producing dental caries (cavities, holes in the teeth).

3. Name the two groups of bacteria which causes Dental caries?
Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the two groups of bacteria which causes Dental caries.

4. what is Cariology?
Cariology is the study of dental caries..

5. How did tooth decay occur?
Tooth decay is caused by specific types of acid-producing bacteria that cause damage in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates.

6. What are the main features of toothache pain?
Toothache pain is very uncomfortable and can vary, depending on why it occurs. It can be described as throbbing, intermittent or continuous. The pain worsens when eating or drinking hot or cold food and beverages, and intensifies when lying down.

7. What is dental plaque?
Dental plaque is the main cause of toothache. It consists mostly of bacteria and forms a thin layer on the surface of teeth and gums. Plaque attracts sugars from food and beverages, which gradually transform into acids. The acids are responsible for producing tooth caries, commonly known as tooth decay. Plaque can also cause inflammation of the gums and tooth pulp, and ultimately lead to tooth loss. The main cause of plaque formation is poor oral hygiene.

8. What is pulpits? 
Pulpits is an inflammation of the dental pulp and is caused by a bacterial infection. The infection is usually a secondary development to tooth decay. If the decay is very deep, it can irritate the pulp and allow bacteria to enter. The harmful bacterial action can increase pressure in the surrounding tissues. The rise in tissue pressure is what causes the pain...

9. What type of pain does pulpits cause?
The intensity and level of the pain can vary, depending on the severity of the inflammation. Usually, the pain is acute and throbbing. As the inflammation spreads, the pain becomes more intense and can be continuous or intermittent. The pain is made worse by heat and external stimuli and is usually relieved by cold applications.

10. What is a dental abscess?
Dental abscess is an inflammation caused by the formation of pus. Pus is a substance composed of bacteria, dead cells and other microorganisms. There are two main types of oral cavity abscesses. Dental abscess is an inflammation of the tooth pulp. It generally results from a caries, or tooth decay. Pus forms at the tip of the tooth root. 
Gingival abscess is an inflammation of the gums, resulting from typical gum diseases such as periodontitis. Pus forms in the gum crevices caused by periodontitis.

11. What type of pain does dental abscesses cause?
Pain from dental abscess is usually quite severe. It is throbbing and continuous, and intensifies when chewing or lying down.

12. How can toothache be prevented? ?
Tooth decay, pulpits and abscesses should be treated by a dentist. In the meantime, the pain can be relieved in various ways. One remedy is the use of cold applications. An ice pack placed on the painful areas will anesthetize the nerve endings. Keeping your head raised reduces the pain, but lying down makes it worse because it raises blood pressure in the head. If the pain is very strong, nonprescription pain relievers can be taken, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). If infection is present, a regimen of antibiotics should be taken, as prescribed by a physician.

13. How can plaque formation and toothache be prevented?
The best prevention against toothache is to practice regular oral hygiene. Teeth should be brushed at least 3 times a day and brushed individually -- including the inside surfaces. Brush your tongue, as well. Do not brush too energetically, otherwise you will damage the tooth enamel. Dental floss should also be used regularly and made part of an oral hygiene regimen.

14. what is meant by root canal treatment?
The term root canal refers to the process of treating a badly damaged or infected tooth by cleaning out the canals inside it. Advances in dentistry have made it such that most people who undergo root canals feel little or no pain.

15. What is Bruxism?
Bruxism is a condition in which you grind, gnash or clench your teeth. If you have bruxism, you may unconsciously clench your teeth together during the day or grind them at night, which is called sleep bruxism.

16. What are the symptoms of Bruxism?
Signs and symptoms of bruxism may include:
1.Teeth grinding or clenching, which may be loud enough to awaken your sleep partner.
2.Teeth that are worn down, flattened, fractured or chipped.
3.Worn tooth enamel, exposing deeper layers of your tooth.
4.Increased tooth sensitivity.
5.Jaw pain or tightness in your jaw muscles.
6.Enlarged jaw muscles.
7.Earache — because of severe jaw muscle contractions, not a problem with your ear.
9.Chronic facial pain.
10.Chewed tissue on the inside of your cheek.
11.Indentations on your tongue.

17. What are the causes of Bruxism?
physical or psychological causes of Bruxism may include: 
1.Anxiety, stress or tension.
2.Suppressed anger or frustration.
3.Aggressive, competitive or hyperactive personality type.
4.Abnormal alignment of upper and lower teeth (malocclusion).
5.Changes that occur during sleep cycles.
6.Response to pain from an earache or teething (in children).
7.Growth and development of the jaws and teeth (for children).
8.Complication resulting from a disorder, such as Huntington's disease or Parkinson's disease.
9.An uncommon side effect of some psychiatric medications, including certain antidepressants.

18. What are the complications of Bruxism?
Severe bruxism may lead to: 
1.Damage to your teeth (including restorations and crowns) or jaw
2.Tension-type headaches
3.Facial pain
4.Temporomandibular disorders — which occur in the temporomandibular joints (TMJs), located just in front of your ears and felt when opening and closing your mouth.

19. What is Canker sore?
Canker sores, also called aphthous ulcers, are small, shallow lesions that develop on the soft tissues in our mouth and at the base of our gums. Unlike cold sores, canker sores don't occur on the surface of our lips and aren't contagious. They can be very painful, however, and can make eating and talking difficult.

20. What is meant by Cold sore?
Cold sores — also called fever blisters — are fluid-filled lesions caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 infection.

21. Can you get genital herpes from a cold sore?
Yes — it is definitely possible to contract genital herpes from oral sex.
Genital herpes is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). There are two types of herpes viruses — HSV-1 and HSV-2. Genital herpes is usually caused by HSV-2; oral herpes (cold sores) is usually caused by HSV-1.

22. What's a dental dam?
A dental dam is a smallish, square piece of latex that is used as a barrier during oral sex to help prevent the spread of STDs (sexually transmitted diseases).

23. What is Feline odontoclastic resorptive lesion?
Feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (FORLs) is a disease in cats characterized by resorption of the tooth by odontoclasts, cells similar to osteoclasts.

24. What is meant by Acid erosion?
Acid erosion, also known as dental erosion, is the irreversible loss of tooth structure due to chemical dissolution by acids not of bacterial origin. Dental erosion is the most common chronic disease of children ages 5–17.

25. Define Tooth enamel?
Tooth enamel along with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp is one of the four major tissues which make up the tooth in vertebrates. It is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance in the human body.

26. What is Tooth whitening?
Tooth whitening is a procedure that lightens teeth and helps remove stains and discoloration.

27. Define Oral Microbiology?
Oral microbiology is the study of the microorganisms of the oral cavity and the interactions between the oral microorganisms with each other and with the host. Of particular interest is the role of oral microorganisms in the two major dental diseases: dental caries and periodontal disease.

28. Define Human Flora?
The human flora is the assemblage of microorganisms that reside on the surface and in deep layers of skin, in the saliva and oral mucosa, in the conjunctiva, and in the gastrointestinal tracts. They include bacteria, fungi, and archaea.

29. What is Oral cancer?
Oral cancer is any cancerous tissue growth located in the oral cavity.

30. Whatis meant by Periodontal disease?
Periodontal diseases (also called periodontitis) are those diseases that affect one or more of the periodontal tissues:
1.alveolar bone
2.periodontal ligament

31. What is Periodontitis?
Periodontitis is the specialty of dentistry that studies supporting structures of teeth, diseases, and conditions that affect them. The supporting tissues are known as the periodontium, which includes the gingiva (gums), alveolar bone, cementum, and the periodontal ligament.

32. What is meant by Crown lengthening?
Crown lengthening is a surgical procedure performed by a dentist to expose a greater amount of tooth structure for the purpose of subsequently restoring the tooth prosthetically.This is done by incising the gingival tissue around a tooth and, after temporarily displacing the soft tissue, predictably removing a given height of alveolar bone from the circumference of the tooth or teeth being operated on. While many general dentists perform this procedure, they frequently refer such cases to periodontists.

33. What is Trench mouth?
Trench mouth is a painful bacterial infection that involves swelling (inflammation) and ulcers in the gums (gingiva).

34. What is meant by Dental tourism?
Dental tourism is a subset of the sector known as medical tourism. Also found under the heading of Dental Vacations. It involves individuals seeking dental care outside of their local healthcare systems usually in combination with taking a vacation to a foreign country.

35. Define Pericoronitis?
Pericoronitis is a common problem in young adults with partial tooth impactions. It usually occurs within 17 to 24 years of age as it is when the third molars start erupting. It occurs when the tissue around the wisdom tooth has become inflamed because bacteria have invaded the area.

36. What is Oral and maxillofacial surgery?
Oral and maxillofacial surgery is a surgery to correct a wide spectrum of diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region. It is a recognized international surgical specialty and it is one of the nine specialties of dentistry (recognized as a medical specialty in certain parts of the world, such as the UK).

37. What is meant by Teeth cleaning?
Teeth cleaning is a part of oral hygiene and involves the removal of dental plaque from teeth with the intention of preventing cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, and periodontal disease. People routinely clean their own teeth by brushing and interdental cleaning, and dental hygienists can remove hardened deposits not removed by routine cleaning.

38. What is TMJ?
Temporomandibular joint disorder, or TMJ syndrome, is an umbrella term covering acute or chronic inflammation of the temporomandibular joint, which connects the mandible to the skull. The disorder and resultant dysfunction can result in significant pain and impairment. Because the disorder transcends the boundaries between several health-care disciplines — in particular, dentistry and neurology — there are a variety of treatment approaches.

39. What is meant by Oral piercing or Tongue piercing?
A tongue piercing is a body piercing usually done directly through the center of the tongue, and is the most popular piercing site in the western world after the ear and nostril.

40. Define Dentine hypersensitivity?
Dentine hypersensitivity is a sensation felt when the nerves inside the dentin of the teeth are exposed to the environment. The sensation can range from irritation all the way to intense, shooting pain. This sensitivity can be caused by several factors, including wear, decaying teeth or exposed tooth roots.

41. What is Anorexia nervosa?
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that involves an inability to stay at the minimum body weight considered healthy for the person's age and height.Persons with this disorder may have an intense fear of weight gain, even when they are underweight. They may use extreme dieting, excessive exercise, or other methods to lose weight. 

42. Define Bleeding gums?
Bleeding gums can be a sign that you are at risk for, or already have, gum disease. However, persistent gum bleeding may be due to serious medical conditions such as leukemia and bleeding and platelet disorders.

43. What is meant by Rickets?
Rickets is a softening of bones in children due to deficiency or impaired metabolism of vitamin D, phosphorus or calcium, potentially leading to fractures and deformity. Rickets is among the most frequent childhood diseases in many developing countries. The predominant cause is a vitamin D deficiency, but lack of adequate calcium in the diet may also lead to rickets (cases of severe diarrhea and vomiting may be the cause of the deficiency).

44. What is Orthorexia nervosa?
Orthorexia nervosa (also known as orthorexia) is a term used by Steven Bratman to describe people who have developed a fixation with healthy or righteous eating and has been referred to as a mental disorder.It is not a medically recognized term.

45. Define Pro-ana?
Pro-ana refers to the promotion of the eating disorder anorexia nervosa as a lifestyle choice. It is often referred to simply as "ana" and is sometimes affectionately personified by anorexics as a girl named Ana. The lesser-used term pro-mia refers likewise to bulimia nervosa and is sometimes used interchangeably with pro-ana.

46. What is meant by Wisdom teeth?
A wisdom tooth, in humans, is any of the usually four third molars, including mandibular third molar and maxillary third molar. Wisdom teeth usually appear between the ages of 17 and 25.Most adults have four wisdom teeth, but it is possible to have more, in which case they are called supernumerary teeth.

47. Define Dentistry?
Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body.

48. What is Sjogren's syndrome?
Sjögren's syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease in which immune cells attack and destroy the exocrine glands that produce tears and saliva.

49. Who is a Dental hygenist?
A dental hygienist is a licensed dental professional who specializes in preventive oral health, typically focusing on techniques in oral hygiene.

50. .What is meant by Dental restoration?
A dental restoration or dental filling is a dental restorative material used to restore the function, integrity and morphology of missing tooth structure. The structural loss typically results from caries or external trauma.

51. What is Biotene?
Biotene is a dental hygiene product manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline. It comes in a number of forms, including toothpaste, mouthwash and cream.In addition to the active ingredient sodium monofluorophosphate, the product also contains enzymes including glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and lysozyme. Patients with xerostomia (dry mouth) may use Biotene to reduce the rate of recurrence of dental plaque. However, Biotene by itself does not significantly reduce the count of Streptococcus mutans which is the primary initiator of the formation of dental plaque.

52. What is Xerostomia?
Xerostomia is the medical term for the subjective complaint of dry mouth due to a lack of saliva. Xerostomia is sometimes colloquially called pasties, cottonmouth, drooth, doughmouth or des (like a desert). Xerostomia is also common in smoker

53. What is meant by Dental extraction?
A dental extraction is the removal of a tooth from the mouth. Extractions are performed for a wide variety of reasons, including tooth decay that has destroyed enough tooth structure to render the tooth non-restorable. Extractions of impacted or problematic wisdom teeth are routinely performed, as are extractions of some permanent teeth to make space for orthodontic treatment.

54. What is Endodontic therapy?
Endodontic therapy is a sequence of treatment for the pulp of a tooth which results in the elimination of infection and protection of the decontaminated tooth from future microbial invasion. This set of procedures is commonly referred to as a "root canal".

55. What is meant by Dental x-ray?
Dental x-rays are a type of picture of the teeth and mouth. X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, just like visible light. They are of higher energy, however, and can penetrate the body to form an image on film.


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