Dementia FAQ

1. What is Dementia?
Dementia is a serious loss of cognitive ability in a previously unimpaired person, beyond what might be expected from normal aging. It may be static, the result of a unique global brain injury, or progressive, resulting in long-term decline due to damage or disease in the body. Although dementia is far more common in the geriatric population, it may occur in any stage of adulthood.

2. What are the symptoms of Dementia?
The symptoms of Dementia include memory loss,difficulty in communicating,inability to learn or remember new information,difficulty with planning and organizing,difficulty with coordination and motor functions,personality changes,inability to reason,inappropriate behaviour,Paranoia,Agitation,Hallucinations etc.

3. Mention some tips to prevent Dementia?
Some tips to prevent Dementia are: 1.Keep your mind active.
2.Be physically and socially active. `
3.Lower your homocysteine levels. 
4.LOwer your cholesterol levels. 
5.Lower your blood pressure. 
6.Pursue education. 
7.Maintain a healthy diet. 
8.Get your vaccinations.

4. What are the different types of Dementia?
Different types of Dementia include:
1.Cortical dementia.
2.Subcortical dementia.
3.Progressive dementia.
4.Primary dementia.
5.Secondary dementia..

5. What is meant by Secondary dementias?
Dementia may occur in patients who have other disorders that primarily affect movement or other functions. These cases are often referred to as secondary dementias.

6. What causes Dementia?
There are several things that could cause dementia:
1. Diseases that cause degeneration or loss of nerve cells in the brain such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's.
2. Diseases that affect blood vessels, such as stroke, which can cause a disorder known as multi-infarct dementia.
3. Toxic reactions, like excessive alcohol or drug use.
4. Nutritional deficiencies, like vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.
5. Infections that affect the brain and spinal cord, such as AIDS dementia complex and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
6. Certain types of hydrocephalus, an accumulation of fluid in the brain that can result from developmental abnormalities, infections, injury, or brain tumors.
7. Head injury -- either a single severe head injury or longer term smaller injuries, like in boxers.
8. Illnesses other than in the brain, such as kidney, liver, and lung diseases, can all lead to dementia.

7. Mention the names of some disorders which causes dementia in children?
Nieman-Pick disease,Batten disease and Laforabody disease are some disorders which causes dementia in children.

8. What other conditions can cause Dementia?
Reactions to medicines,Metabolic problems and endocrine abnormalities,Nutritional deficiencies,Infections,Subdural hematomas,Poisoning,Brain tumors and Anoxia etc. are some conditions which can cause dementia...

9. What is Brain Tumor?
A brain tumor is an intracranial solid neoplasm, a tumor (defined as an abnormal growth of cells) within the brain or the central spinal canal. Brain tumors include all tumors inside the cranium or in the central spinal canal.

10. What is meant by CAT scan?
CT scanning—sometimes called CAT scanning—is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions.CT scanning combines special x-ray equipment with sophisticated computers to produce multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body. These cross-sectional images of the area being studied can then be examined on a computer monitor, printed or transferred to a CD.

11. What is Multiple sclerosis?
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).

12. What is meant by AIDS Dementia complex?
AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia) is a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia.

13. Define Subdural hematomas?
A subdural hematoma also known as a subdural hemorrhage (SDH), is a type of hematoma, a form of traumatic brain injury in which blood gathers within the outermost meningeal layer, between the dura mater, which adheres to the skull, and the arachnoid mater enveloping the brain.

14. What is Anoxia?
The term anoxia means a total decrease in the level of oxygen, an extreme form of hypoxia or "low oxygen".

15. What is meant by MRI scan?
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structures. MRI makes use of the property of Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to image nuclei of atoms inside the body.

16. Define Dehydration?
Dehydration (hypo hydration) is defined as an excessive loss of body fluid. It is literally the removal of water from an object, however in physiological terms, it entails a deficiency of fluid within an organism.

17. What is meant by a Stroke?
A stroke, previously known medically as a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. This can be due to ischemia (lack of blood flow) caused by blockage (thrombosis, arterial embolism), or a hemorrhage (leakage of blood). As a result, the affected area of the brain is unable to function, leading to inability to move one or more limbs on one side of the body, inability to understand or formulate speech, or an inability to see one side of the visual field.

18. Define Frontotemporal dementia?
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinical syndrome caused by degeneration of the frontal lobe of the brain and may extend back to the temporal lobe. It is one of three syndromes caused by frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and the second most common early-onset dementia after Alzheimer's disease.

19. what is Alzheimer's disease?
Alzheimer's disease (AD), or simply Alzheimer's, is the most common form of dementia. This incurable, degenerative, and terminal disease was first described by German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him.

20. Define Vascular dementia?
Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older adults. Multi-infarct dementia (MID) is thought to be an irreversible form of dementia, and its onset is caused by a number of small strokes or sometimes, one large stroke. The term refers to a group of syndromes caused by different mechanisms all resulting in vascular lesions in the brain. Early detection and accurate diagnosis are important, as vascular dementia is at least partially preventable.

21. What is Hypoglycemia?
Hypoglycemia is the medical term for a state produced by a lower than normal level of blood glucose.The term literally means "under-sweet blood".It can produce a variety of symptoms and effects but the principal problems arise from an inadequate supply of glucose to the brain, resulting in impairment of function (neuroglycopenia).

22. What is Alcoholism?
Alcoholism is a disabling addictive disorder. It is characterized by compulsive and uncontrolled consumption of alcohol despite its negative effects on the drinker's health, relationships, and social standing. Like other drug addictions, alcoholism is medically defined as a treatable disease.

23. What is meant by Wandering?
Wandering, in persons with dementia, is a common behavior that causes great risk for the person and concern for caregivers. It is estimated to be the most common type of disruptive behavior in institutionalized persons with dementia. Although it occurs in several types of dementia, wandering is especially problematic in persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is because AD frequently produces impaired memory: persons with impaired memory are likely to become disoriented and lost simply because they do not recognize where they are nor remember how they came to be there.

24. Define Lewy body dementia?
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a type of dementia closely allied to both Alzheimers and Parkinson's Diseases. It is characterized anatomically by the presence of Lewy bodies, clumps of alpha-synuclein and ubiquitin protein in neurons, detectable in post-mortem brain biopsies.

25. What is Lyme disease?
Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu strictois the main cause of Lyme disease in the United States, whereas Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii cause most European cases. The disease is named after the town of Lyme, Connecticut, USA, where a number of cases were identified in 1975.

26. What is meant by Multi-infarct dementia?
Multi-infarct dementia, is one type of vascular dementia. Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older adults. Multi-infarct dementia (MID) is thought to be an irreversible form of dementia, and its onset is caused by a number of small strokes or sometimes, one large stroke. The term refers to a group of syndromes caused by different mechanisms all resulting in vascular lesions in the brain. Early detection and accurate diagnosis are important, as vascular dementia is at least partially preventable.

27. Define the term "Complete blood count"?
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as full blood count (FBC) is a test panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood. A scientist or lab technician performs the requested testing and provides the requesting medical professional with the results of the CBC.

28. What is Parkinson's disease?
Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. It results from the death by unknown causes of the dopamine-containing cells of the substantia nigra, which is a region of the midbrain. Early in the course of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are movement-related, including shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait. Later, cognitive and behavioural problems may arise, with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep and emotional problems. PD is more common in the elderly with most cases occurring after the age of 50 years.

29. What is Traumatic brain injury?
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force traumatically injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g. occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area). Head injury usually refers to TBI, but is a broader category because it can involve damage to structures other than the brain, such as the scalp and skull.

30. Define Hypertension?
Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure is a cardiac chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure is elevated.Hypertension is classified as either primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension.

31. Give the definition of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease or CJD is a degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is incurable and invariably fatal. The disease is at times called a human form of Mad Cow disease given the fact that Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.

32. What is Dementia pugilistica?
Dementia pugilistica (DP) is a type of neurodegenerative disease or dementia, which may affect amateur or professional boxers as well as athletes in other sports who suffer concussions. It is also called chronic boxer’s encephalopathy.

33. What is meant by Human immunodeficiency virus?
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a member of the retrovirus family) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS),a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. The four major routes of transmission are unsafe sex, contaminated needles, breast milk, and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth (perinatal transmission). Screening of blood products for HIV has largely eliminated transmission through blood transfusions or infected blood products in the developed world.

34. Define Krabbe disease?
Krabbe disease is a rare, often fatal degenerative disorder that affects the myelin sheath of the nervous system. This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. The disease is named for the Danish neurologist Knud Haraldsen Krabbe.

35. Define the term Neuroacanthocytosis?
The term neuroacanthocytosis refers to a group of genetically diverse conditions complicated by movement disorders, neurological problems and spiculated (misshapen) red blood cells. These syndromes, which include chorea acanthocytosis, McLeod syndrome, Huntington’s disease–like 2 (HDL2), and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), primarily affect the brain and the basal ganglia. The conditions are caused by genetic mutations of several different genes including, VPS13A, XK, JPH3 and PANK2. The mutations are inherited through various genetic mechanisms.

36. What is meant by Elderly care?
Elderly care or simply eldercare is the fulfillment of the special needs and requirements that are unique to senior citizens. This broad term encompasses such services as assisted living, adult day care, long term care, nursing homes, hospice care, and In-Home care.

37. Write a short description on Montessori-Based Dementia Programming?
Montessori-Based Dementia Programming (MBDP) is a method of working with older adults living with cognitive and/or physical impairments based on the ideas of the educator Maria Montessori. It has been shown to increase levels of engagement and participation in activities of persons with dementia. While it can not cure or prevent Alzheimer's disease, it has been shown to generally improve many aspects of the quality of life of those who have it.

38. What is Mild Cognitive Impairment?
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI, also known as incipient dementia, or isolated memory impairment) is a diagnosis given to individuals who have cognitive impairments beyond that expected for their age and education, but that do not interfere significantly with their daily activities. It is considered to be the boundary or transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. Although MCI can present with a variety of symptoms, when memory loss is the predominant symptom it is termed "amnestic MCI" and is frequently seen as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

39. Give a definition to Meningitis?
Meningitis is an inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms, and less commonly by certain drugs. Meningitis can be life-threatening because of the inflammation's proximity to the brain and spinal cord; therefore the condition is classified as a medical emergency.

40. When did Carbon monoxide poisoning occur?
Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after enough inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO). Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas, but, being colorless, odorless, tasteless, and non-irritating, it is very difficult for people to detect. Carbon monoxide is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter with insufficient oxygen supply to enable complete oxidation to carbon dioxide (CO2) and is often produced in domestic or industrial settings by older motor vehicles and other gasoline-powered tools, heaters, and cooking equipment.

41. What are Cognitive orthotics?
Cognitive orthotics are software-based personal reminder systems for people with cognitive impairment, such as memory loss. People who can benefit include the elderly, people who have experienced traumatic brain injury, and anyone who experiences memory loss. These devices may be installed on personal digital assistants (PDAs). They may include elements of adaptive programming or artificial intelligence, to accommodate the needs of the individuals more appropriately. 

42. What is Agitation?
Agitation often accompanies dementia and often precedes the diagnosis of common age-related disorders of cognition such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). More than 80% of people who develop AD eventually become agitated or aggressive.

43. What is Endocarditis?
Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. It usually involves the heart valves (native or prosthetic valves). Other structures which may be involved include the interventricular septum, the chordae tendineae, the mural endocardium, or even on intracardiac devices. Endocarditis is characterized by a prototypic lesion, the vegetation, which is a mass of platelets, fibrin, microcolonies of microorganisms, and scant inflammatory cells.

44. Define Alexander disease?
Alexander disease is a slowly progressing and fatal neurodegenerative disease. It is a very rare disorder which results from a genetic mutation and mostly affects infants and children, causing developmental delay and changes in physical characteristics.

45. What is DRPLA?
Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar degeneration caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat encoding a polyglutamine tract in the atrophin-1 protein.It is also known as Haw River Syndrome and Naito-Oyanagi disease.

46. What is Encephalitis?
Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain. Encephalitis with meningitis is known as meningoencephalitis. Symptoms include headache, fever, confusion, drowsiness, and fatigue. More advanced and serious symptoms include seizures or convulsions, tremors, hallucinations, and memory problems.

47. Define Sundowning?
Sundowning, also known as sundown syndrome, is a syndrome involving the occurrence or increase of one or more abnormal behaviors in a circadian rhythm.Sundowning typically occurs during the late afternoon, evening, and night, hence the name. It occurs in persons with certain forms of dementia and psychosis, such as seen in Alzheimer's disease.

48. What is Maple syrup urine disease?
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), also called branched-chain ketoaciduria, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting branched-chain amino acids. It is one type of organic acidemia.The condition gets its name from the distinctive sweet odor of affected infants' urine.

49. What is Huntington's disease?
Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline and dementia. It typically becomes noticeable in middle age. HD is the most common genetic cause of abnormal involuntary writhing movements called chorea and is much more common in people of Western European descent than in those from Asia or Africa.

50. What is Corticobasal degeneration?
Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disease involving the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia.It is characterized by marked disorders in movement and cognitive dysfunction. Clinical diagnosis is difficult, as symptoms of CBD are often similar to those of other diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy(PSP).


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